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Sources: Islam by Vartan Gregorian (Brookings Institution Press, 2003); National Geographic Magazine; Encyclopedia Britannica

ISLAM'S GOLDEN AGE
During Islam’s Golden age (750-1258) Arab scientists pioneered integral calculus, spherical trigonometry, astronomy, al-kemia (chemistry), al-jabr (algebra) and numerous other fields.
       Abu Ali ibn Sina, an 11th century Persian scholar known in the West as Avicenna, wrote The Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi at-tibb), one of the most famous books in the history of medicine, and 200 other medical treatises that were widely read in Europe.
       Al-Azhar University in Cairo, founded in the 10th century, was the first university to distinguish between graduate and undergraduate students.
       Early scientists in Bagh-dad are believed to be the first to distill al-kuhl (alcohol)—though they were banned from drinking it.