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International Health at 50

International Health at 50 (continued)


To strengthen the Department’s work in vaccines and infectious diseases, chair Robert Black and Mary Lou Clements-Mann established the Center for Immunization Research (CIR) in 1985. The Department now houses three other centers with work focused on vaccine research, and is a recognized leader in the evaluation of new vaccine candidates, early phase clinical trials and licensure trials, training in vaccine trials, and vaccine safety and policy, as well as accelerating vaccine access in developing countries.

1990: In a landmark trial of a vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)—the bacterium that causes meningitis—Santosham demonstrates that giving two shots to children before age 2 nearly eradicates the disease in the Navajo Nation in Arizona. Today, almost every developed country uses the Hib vaccine.

1997: At CIR, Clayton Harro begins the first human trials of a human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, the progenitor of the Gardasil and Cervarix vaccines.

2000: At the Navajo and White Mountain Apache reservations, Mathuram Santosham and Katherine O’Brien show that a new vaccine against pneumococcus (PCV) is effective against pneumococcal disease not only among vaccinated infants, but also in adults and the elderly in the community not vaccinated with PCV. WHO recommends PCV as a routine vaccine.

2003: Orin Levine, Kate O’Brien and colleagues launch the PneumoADIP project to accelerate the introduction of PCV vaccines for children in the world’s poorest countries. With support from the GAVI Alliance, and based on PneumoADIP’s work, PCV vaccines are expected to prevent more than 5 million child deaths by 2030.

2009: Ruth Karron, Kawsar Talaat and colleagues lead a large U.S. trial to determine the safety and immunogenicity of an H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine.


  • Martin

    France 10/19/2011 04:18:03 PM

    It is surprising that the field of International Health makes virtually no mention of water, sanitation and hygiene. Is the ultimate message of IH simply that prevention is a waste of time and curative approaches are the only viable ones? I doubt that Carl Taylor would have endorsed that. In fact, the notion that "It's the people themselves who have to take ownership of their own health care" is probably very closely linked to the concept of "community led total sanitation". International Health needs to understand Environmental Health.

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Origins of International Health

Origins of International Health

He was there: Carl Taylor recalls the reasons behind the birth of what is now global health.

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